Virbalis | Marijampole

Virbalis, Lithuania, 1929, The seventh class of the Hebrew "Reali" Gymnasium (1919 - 1929) © Yad Vashem Virbalis, Lithuania, 1922, Members of Hechalutz © Yad Vashem Market in Virbalis at the conjunction of the 19th and 20th centuries © “Facebook” page “Lietuva senose fotografijose” The synagogue in Virbalys © Virbalis, Lithuania, A holy ark in the synagogue © Yad Vashem Photo Archives / In 1941, then 18-year-old Ona B. saw the massacre from her house located on the other side of the river, about half a kilometer away from the trench © Cristian Monterroso/Yahad-In Unum Vincas Ž., born in 1930, saw the Jewish women in underwear being forced to run from the trucks to the anti-tank trench and being shot with machine-guns; days later he saw three trucks with children heading to the same place © Jordi Lagoutte/Yahad-In Unum Vincas Ž. shows the 300-meter-long part of the anti-tank trench where 700 Jews were buried along with prisoners of war, communists and activists. In all, there were 10,000 victims © Jordi Lagoutte/Yahad-In Unum Trees planted on both sides of the mass grave show how wide it was © Jordi Lagoutte/Yahad-In Unum According to Jonas B. (1931), the German officers were taking pictures of the mass execution © Jordi Lagoutte/Yahad-In Unum A pre-war sewing machine in the house of the witness © Jordi Lagoutte/Yahad-In Unum

Execution of Jews in Virbalis

1 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before:
Period of occupation:
Number of victims:

Witness interview

Vincas Ž., born in 1930, remembers the day of the mass execution:
“The shooting place was about 400 meters behind a barn. I could see it well. I saw the trucks arriving. Jewish women were shot that day. The trucks were covered. Women would be taken off the trucks in groups of six. They wore only underwear. They were crying. There was an anti-tank trench dug by the Russians. One side of it was inclined, and the other side was steep, so that tanks couldn’t pass it. The women would run to the edge of the trench. Once there, they would be shot with machine-guns and would fall inside.” (Eyewitness N°237, interviewed in Virbalis, on August 13, 2015)

Soviet archives

“I vaguely remember that I went to the anti-tank trench around noon where the shooting took place. I don’t remember who suggested joining the shooting, or maybe I expressed my own will. I had a gun in my hand. K. was standing next to me. I think that I shot several times at the women. I can hardly remember that. I dropped the gun. S. noticed that I could barely stand and I was suspended from the shooting; they took away the gun. I don’t remember what happened next. I remember myself lying in the cart on the heap of clothes of Jewish women and children.” [Deposition of Vincas G., accused of shooting Jews in Virbalis, taken on October 10, 1961, Lithuanian Special Archives, Fund K–1, Inventory No. 58, File No. 47363/3, p. 7-9]

Historical note

Jews had lived in Virbalis since the 17th century, and they made up more than a third of the population of the town by the end of the 19th century (1,219 people, according to the census of 1897). The towns’ location near the German border, on the railway line connecting Berlin and Saint-Petersburg, created favorable business conditions. Therefore, many Jews of Virbalis were engaged in both local and international trade. The proximity of the German border also contributed to stronger Western influence and progressive ideas. This resulted in an active public, academic and cultural life. During the interwar period, Virbalis had a Jewish high school, where subjects were taught in Hebrew. Famous Jews who lived in Virbalis included the agronomist Yakov Filipovsky, who was known as the greatest specialist in cultivating species of fruit trees and berries in Lithuania. Although the living conditions were comfortable enough, the number of Jews in the town declined during the wave of emigration in 1930s. About 150 Jewish families, or approximately 600 Jewish people, lived in Virbalis in 1939. The town was captured by the German army on the first day of the war, June 22, 1941.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

By the order of Tilsit Gestapo given on July 7, 1941, the Jewish men of Virbalis over 16 years old and a number of Lithuanian communist activists were gathered together and confined in Raudondvaris estate north of Virbalis. In the middle of July, they all were shot in an anti-tank trench dug out before the war in the pasture field north of Virbalis. The same trench became the mass grave for hundreds more Jews who lived in the surroundings. The second mass execution was carried out there in the end of July. After the Jewish men of Virbalis were shot, the remaining women and children were moved to the ghetto, established on Vištyčio and Maironio Streets. At some point in August, they were joined by Jewish women and children from Kybartai. On September 11, 1941, the ghetto was liquidated, and its inmates were exterminated in the same anti-tank trench outside the town. Together with about 700 Jews, thousands of Russian prisoners of war and a number of Lithuanian communist activists were shot and buried in that trench. The total number of victims resting there is about 10, 000.

For more information about the execution in Kybartai please refer to the corresponding profile


Holocaust Atlas of Lithuania

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